The high incidence of thyroid disease has caused more and more friends to pay attention to its cause. There are many types of thyroid disease. Many of them are related to autoimmunity. Autoimmune thyroid diseases include Graves disease, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, and Postpartum thyroiditis is caused by the immune response of the body's immune system to thyroid tissue, and is the result of interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors.
At present, many studies have shown that selenium can help reduce the level of thyroid autoantibodies, thereby preventing and delaying the damage of the thyroid itself. Selenium is an essential trace element in the human body. It plays a biological role mainly through selenium-containing proteins. Selenium is involved in the basic metabolic processes of various life activities, such as the synthesis of DNA, which requires the participation of selenium-containing proteins. Maintaining proper selenium in the body is conducive to maintaining normal immune defense function, thyroid function and reproductive function.
Selenium has the following effects on iodine metabolism and thyroid function:
During the synthesis of thyroid hormone, the thyroid gland produces a large amount of peroxides, and a large amount of peroxides accumulated in the thyroid tissue can cause damage to the thyroid follicular epithelium, causing diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Selenium is an antioxidant in human tissues, which can remove excessive peroxidants produced during the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thereby maintaining the balance between thyroid tissue oxidation and antioxidants, and protecting thyroid cells from oxidative stress damage.
2. Participate in thyroid hormone synthesis
Thyroid hormone is mainly divided into thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Among them, T4 does not have hormonal activity, only T3 is formed by the action of deiodinase, and T3 has high hormonal activity and is the main hormone that exerts the role of thyroid hormones. Selenium participates in the process of converting deiodinase T4 to T3. Deficiency of selenium can reduce the activity of deiodinase, reduce the conversion of T4 to T3, increase T4 in blood, and decrease T3, which affects the function of thyroid function.
3. Selenium and thyroid autoimmunity
In recent years, the incidence of thyroid disease has increased year by year, which is not only related to environmental, mental stress, dietary structure and other factors, immune disorders also play an important role in it. Selenium has a special status in the immune system. Selenium can effectively improve the body's immune function. When the immune disorder caused by low selenium is dominated by cytokine-mediated humoral immunity, a large number of thyroid-stimulating antibodies are produced to promote thyroid hormone synthesis and lead to hyperthyroidism; and when cytokine-mediated cellular immunity is dominated, Causes thyroid tissue lymphocyte infiltration, releases cytokines and generates a large amount of oxygen free radicals, destroys thyroid follicular cells and manifests as hypothyroidism.
Selenium deficiency can cause many thyroid diseases, including endemic goiter, congenital hypothyroidism in children, Hashimoto's goiter, and hyperthyroidism. In addition, epidemiological evidence indicates that the intake of selenium is negatively correlated with the incidence of cancer, that is, a certain amount of selenium can reduce the incidence of cancer. Some scholars have found that the selenium content in the thyroid tissue of the normal population is relatively high, and the selenium content in the thyroid tissue of patients with thyroid cancer is lower, even lower than that of patients with other thyroid diseases.
Given that most studies have found that serum selenium levels in patients with thyroid disease are significantly lower than in healthy people, patients with thyroid disease can take appropriate amounts of selenium under the guidance of a doctor. But note that selenium supplementation needs to master the timing and dosage of selenium supplementation to avoid excessive intake and harm to the human body.
In addition, foods rich in selenium include meat, especially animal livers and kidneys, as well as seafood, cereals, mushrooms, onions, garlic, asparagus and other products, and eggs, tuna and oysters are also rich in selenium. In the case of meeting nutritional requirements, it is advisable to add about 200 micrograms of selenium daily.
The specific cause of thyroid disease is unknown, and it is related to many factors. Regular inspections are usually required. If you have any symptoms, see your doctor in time.